Sentence, Kinds of sentences and uses

What is sentence?

A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought, statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion. Sentences state facts, describe things and report events so they are also called Statements. Sentences are the building blocks of the structure of the copy. Here we with detailed information on Sentence, Kinds of sentences and uses.

Example of Sentences

  1. Please get me some postage stamps.
  2. Delhi is the capital of India.
  3. My name is Pujit and I like to read English literature.

Parts of Sentence

A sentence consists of two parts i.e. subject and predicate. Subject refers to the actor of a sentence. While the part of a sentence that tells something about subject is the predicate of sentence.

Subject– The part of sentence which performs some action in a sentence is called Subject. It can be a noun, pronoun, and noun clause or noun phrase. For example

  1. He is flying a kite.
  2. John is driving a car.
  3. She ate an apple

Predicate- The part of sentence which tells about the subject is called predicate. For example

  1. He is flying a kite.
  2. John is driving a car.
  3. She ate an apple

Kinds of Sentences and uses

Sentences are also classified based on their purpose and structure. The entire written language depends on the type of its sentences.

By Purpose- There are four kinds of such type of sentences. Here we are with the detailed uses of sentences along with examples.

Declarative sentences

  1. There are five million people at risk.
  2. Smoking is not good for the body.
  3. Mr. Tom left for the India yesterday.
  4. There were no aeroplanes in the last century.

These kinds of sentences state a fact or an argument and ends with a full stop (.). Declarative sentences are by far the most common type of sentence. There are two kinds of Declarative sentences.

Affirmative sentences- Statements which state things in a positive way are called Affirmative Statements or sentences. For example- He is very busy in his work today.

Negative sentences- Statements which state things in a negative way using words such as not, never, no are called Negative Statements or sentences. For example- I do not want to read these books now.

Imperative sentences

  1. Do not disturb me.
  2. Stop reading now.
  3. Take these saucers and cups away

In these sentences someone is asking someone else to do certain things or not to do certain things. In some of the sentences request is to be made, in some an order is given, in some an advice not to do something is given. Sentences of these kinds which express command, a request, an advice etc. are called Imperative sentences.

These kinds of sentences can collectively call as commands which can be negative or positive. Commands can also be expressed in an indirect way for example- Let these boys go to the library and read there- In this sentence subject is not omitted but is expressed.

Interrogative sentences

  1. Did you come yesterday?
  2. Why do not you reply for the post?
  3. Is it time for the meeting to start.

Sentences of these kinds express a question or inquiry. They are called Interrogative sentences or simply Questions that ends with a question mark (?). In Interrogative sentences or questions the subject does not come before the verb but after a part of the verb, that is, after words like do, did, is, was, were, are, have, etc.

Exclamatory Sentences

  1. What a tall building!
  2. Oh God!
  3. How foolish of you to do this!
  4. Wow its great!

Sentences of this kind express strong feelings such as admiration, surprise, pity, sorrow etc. and are called exclamation or Exclamatory Sentences. In such sentences, the predicate part, that is, the verb may or may not be expressed. Exclamatory Sentences ends with the mark of exclamation (!).

Conditional Sentence

  1. If you left your job, you could travel around the world.
  2. I could have done this for you only if I had the time.
  3. If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a plane.

In Conditional Sentence, a condition is implied and what one would do if the conditions were met. It generally depends on the use of ‘if’.

By Structure- Traditionally sentences are classified on the basis of the structure. Sentences classified on the basis of the structure depend on the number and types of finite clauses.

Simple Sentence

  1. He goes to the temple every day.
  2. I like to study in the mornings.
  3. Tom gets up at 6 o’clock every day.

In this type of sentence, there is only one independent clause. The sentence contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Simple sentences can also contain compound subjects and/or verbs but it doesn’t contain any conjunction.

Compound Sentence

  1. The dangers of smoking are well known, yet many people continue to smoke anyway.
  2. I really want to go to work, but I am too sick to drive.
  3. He ran out of money, so he had to stop playing poker.

In this type of sentence, there are multiple independent clauses. All clauses have their independent meaning. Two clauses are joined together by coordinating conjunctions or punctuations. The relationship between the two clauses can be changed by the proper use of coordinating conjunctions.

Complex Sentence

  1. If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.
  2. I really didn’t like the play although the acting was very good.
  3. The professional, who had been thoroughly trained, was at a loss to explain.
  4. Evergreen trees are a symbol of fertility because they do not die in the winter.

A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses connected to it. Complex sentences has a relative pronoun like ‘that’, ‘who’ or ‘which’ or a subordinate like ‘because’, ‘since’, ‘when’, ‘although’ or ‘after’. If the complex sentence begins with a subordinate then a comma is placed after the dependent clause whereas when it begins with an independent clause and the subordinates are in the middle, then there is no need to place a comma after the dependent clause.

Compound-Complex Sentence

  1. Although I like to go camping, I haven’t had the time to go lately, and I haven’t found anyone to go with.
  2. As the dog howled, one cat sat on the fence, and the other licked its paws.
  3. Laura forgot her friend’s birthday, so she sent her a card when she finally remembered.

A compound-complex sentence consists of a combination of a compound sentence and a complex sentence. It is made from two or independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions and subordinators. Compound-complex sentences are very common in English, but many of us try to write them without having mastered the simple sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences first.

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